Introducing the Gulen Movement: Prophet’s Path in the Twenty-first Century

Date posted: July 27, 2012

Muzaffar K. Awan, M.D.

The Prophet’s path being practiced and demonstrated by Hizmet global movement is certainly one of the best ways to minimize and eliminate ignorance through worldwide education, to narrowing the gap between the rich and poor again through education and charitable works. The wealth of the earth will have to be eventually shared most fairly and all discriminations based on race, color, language and ways of living will end through the works and ongoing efforts of Hizmet like movements.

In the contemporary world, the relations between people of the world are becoming more cordial as territorial borders are becoming less important in a globalizing world. Also, the people around the world increasingly share some common universal values such as the importance of genuine democracy, economic justice, human rights, rule of law and freedom in a much more challenging way compared to the past. However, despite the existence of such hopeful developments, our present and early twenty-first century is not genuinely democratic. Our world as a whole still constitutes immature and disorderly global system of neoliberal politics, neoliberal capitalism, sovereign self-centric nation-states, and other forms of social and moral schism is rapidly surging forward, like an immense and stormy ocean, heading toward planetary disaster. We are facing the dead-end. Either we create a truly global democratic renaissance for the twenty-first century by founding a holistic global civilization or we undergo an utter loss – and the immense promise of our common human project may be lost forever on our failed spaceship earth. The choice remains ours still and we must summon the moral courage, genuine political and collective will for immediate action to set up an integrated global legal system and a holistic earthly civil society. [1]

During the weekend of May 5th and 6th 2012, I attended   an international symposium held in Southeastern Anatolian regional city of Gaziantep, in Turkey. It was organized by the Yeni Ümit and Hira magazines and was attended by scholars/intellectuals from 60 countries. Deputy Prime Minister Bekir Bozdağ and Religious Affairs Directorate President Mehmet Görmez were also in attendance of the symposium, entitled “Solutions to social problems from the Path of the Prophet Muhammad.” There was a tremendous interest shown in the conference and the guests from all nations seemed very impressed. The symposium was broadcast live on Turkish Mehtap TV and it received coverage in Turkish and English language newspapers/magazines. Thus, a large   part of the world heard and read about an alternative call about the prophetic path rising from Gaziantep. This was all linked to a founded Hizmet global society that had its beginnings in Turkey in 1970s and the prophetic path has since been inspiringly followed by honorable Fethullah Gülen himself and by millions inspired by him around the globe for several decades by now.

What remains obvious is that global problems of today – be they political, environmental, economic or related to scarcity of resources for the poor and needy –   the major underlying causes still remain ignorance, poverty and lack of unity among nations of the world. There is a desperate need for the establishment of a global cooperation in order to get these   problems resolved permanently. The charity organizations, non-governmental organizations   and global social movements like Hizmet are developing institutions worldwide with the aim of helping the needy in all parts of the world, regardless of their national, ethnic or religious origin.

It can be argued further that in today’s world, non-state global actors such as Hizmet will most certainly continue to play an undisputed and major role in the amelioration of global crises and help facilitate in the establishment of global order, peace and stability. The United Nations that is in no sense “united,” is weak and   of no help. The sovereign nation-states and even superpowers have been of no real help to this day. Multinational Corporations (MNCs), world bank, IMF and WTO all being primarily economic self-interest groups have been of no help either.

The Gulen movement is the most dedicated, reputable and widespread  global  social  movement and  despite having its roots in Turkey, the movement (  also called as the ‘Hizmet Movement'[2] – or Service for humanity)  has  been  tremendously successful  to have a global outreach thanks to the education activities it has been engaged in for several decades . The Gulen movement and millions of its supporters and volunteers follow and treasure Fethullah Gulen’s [3] principles and values. Fethullah Gulen [4] is a mainstream  inspirational Turkish Muslim philosopher, scholar, author, thinker, poet, opinion leader , education and peace activist who supports interfaith and intercultural dialogue globally [5].He also supports science,  true democracy and spirituality while opposing violence or turning religion into a politics.[6]

The Gulen’s [7] is a faith-based movement that embraces all nations, religions, races, colors, etc. The reason why this is so is that this movement has been  already engaged for decades  in education activities all over the world from Europe, USA, Australia, Russia, Africa to Asia and it inevitably has gotten an all-embracing  global character already. Some other features of the Hizmet movement can be summarized further as follows:

First and foremost, Hizmet is a voluntary movement without neatly defined borders, a hierarchy, central headquarters or membership. It is based on hearts, minds, volunteer work and donations by dedicated and a large numbers of businessmen. The Hizmet movement, of course has institutions, schools, charities and media outlets that are affiliated with the movement, and they employ professional staff, who are salaried. But they can only represent their own institutions if they are in managerial positions. Writers, columnists, journalists and academics working in these institutions are not engaged in social, intellectual and political life on behalf of the movement. They only represent themselves. Sometimes they may agree on certain issues so that one can deduce the stand of the movement, but this is not definitive or binding for the movement as a whole. [8]

Secondly, the education activities of the movement have been betting stronger and stronger every year. Olympiads are organized   every year and the number of the participants has been rapidly growing. [9] It is so obvious that the Hizmet movement treasures education the most. According to the philosophy of the movement, education is the key to the solution of our main problems which are ignorance, disunity, and poverty around the world. The educational activities of the movement can be described as follows:

Increasing  number of Gulen schools are now spread  worldwide  already  in 140 countries, and of those the majority  initially were founded  in Central Asia and caucuses ,where there were also half a dozen Gulen sponsored universities and numerous other educational, welfare, and economic institutions and activities. Indeed, the movement’s focus to begin with was on communities, including those of the Russian Federation such as Central Asian Republics, the Caucus Mountain territories of Dagestan, Bulkaria, Adagia, Karachay-Cherkessia, Tatarstan, and Bashkortostan in the Ural Mountains, other former Soviet states with Turkic or formerly Ottoman Muslim minorities such as Ukraine, Georgia, Moldova, and the Balkans. One can readily see why the movement initially targeted Turkic Central Asia and north and south caucuses for the main thrust of its activities. After all, many in Turkey’s political realm also made a similar assessment of Turkish prospects in these   regions in the immediate aftermath of the Soviet Union’s collapse. Many of them shared a language and ethnic roots with Turkey, and a “folk Islam” that, as in Turkey, incorporated more commonly Sufi Islamic thought and had absorbed some pre-Islamic traditions and beliefs. Furthermore, the Soviet era had left behind a legacy of secular education and a commitment to science and modernity that broadly corresponded with the Gulen movement’s positive aspirations. [10] It can be now  said that the Gulen movement contributes to global peace through building interfaith tolerance and dialogue [11] on the basis of education, such contributions are supposed to go ahead in a much more vibrant way in the coming years.

Comparing Gulen’s notion of dialogue with ancient Greek thought, particularly, as articulated by Plato; we do find that Gülen’s concept of dialogue not only fits well within the Greek philosophical tradition but also goes beyond Plato’s notion when Gulen conjoins the notions of tolerance and dialogue. Gulen’s notion of dialogue was also examined further in the light of recent works in speech act theory and Jürgen Habermas’ theory of communicative rationality. Once again, It revealed many elements in common, particularly, in the conditions that both Gülen and Habermas lay down in order for the dialogues truly to take place. It has been further emphasized that Gülen has linked tolerance, love and dialogue in a new way that provides a more important and creative message within a global context offering a better alternative to conflict and war. [12]

Gulen’s view not unlike Habermas’s idea of communicative rationality included an argument called universal pragmatism that human beings are equipped with the communicative competence that brings about mutual understanding. Habermas like Gulen, as a firm believer in dialogue, is also an optimist who criticized any schools of thought for excessive pessimism. In Fethullah Gülen’s thought and practice, a similar belief in mutual understanding, dialogue and optimism prevails in contrast to the Islamists’ pessimism in general. Gülen’s optimism and belief in dialogue, tolerance, coupled with his intellectual and self-confidence makes it easier for him to communicate and interact with anyone.

Gülen holds an inclusive, Universalist and transcendent Islamic conception. Gülen’s idea of peace is based on the integrity of the individual regardless of ethnic or religious background and approach to peace building; therefore, Gulen’s is one of “bottom-up” social change and transformation of human society globally. In Gülen’s worldview as mentioned already, there are three major enemies of not only Muslims, but also humanity as a whole: ignorance, poverty and disunity. His pluralistic, inclusivist and peace building ideas have enabled the Gülen Movement to successfully turn its moral, spiritual, intellectual, and financial and human resources into effective social capital and utilize this social capital in establishing educational institutions from primary school to university level in more than 140 countries. The movement’s stance toward pluralism, diversity, tolerance, nonviolence, acceptance, civil society, passive secularism and democracy shows that the movement generates a bridging social capital, extremely helpful for peace building and establishing sustainable peace globally.

The achievement of peace through tolerance and dialogue can  create a global body politics separate from social movement and under the political authority of the people of the world who will be able to prohibit wars, disarm the nation-states of all weapons, protect human rights worldwide, moderate economics for the common good of all, protect the environment, convert the world to sustainable production and consumption, and share the resources of our planet justly for all people and for the coming generations.

A holistic global civilization can only be founded through the institutions of   global social movements like Hizmet. It will be necessary to establish genuine democratic global governance with a global parliament and a constitution. The founding of global civilization can be the best and the only step forward in human maturity. There can   be no genuine holism, and no lasting peace, without the creation of a global body-politics. Our higher human potential will be actualized significantly in such a reawakening – not only the understanding of holism (tawhidic worldview)   itself but also in the understanding that holism (tawhid) for human beings requires the just rule of law for all of humanity. Our holistic freedom, equality, and our global society as human beings inheriting the beauty and marvel of life on this earth must be embodied in our social, economic, and political institutions. [13a]

The precarious situation of our world   today is clearly in front of us. The capitalist system, within which human values, with the fair distribution of wealth and mercy has been off track, and in chaos for decades. The greed of top managers of corporations in every nation and including multinational corporations (MNCs), which stems from their addiction for greed- earning more and more money, is causing countries — even the ones which were supposed   to be immune — to go bankrupt. Ongoing   economic crises are threatening the entire world through successive chain reactions. Humanity globally can’t remain a silent witness to the tyranny of those who consider themselves to be the absolutely powerful and who don’t expect there ever to be a day of reckoning for them. The extremes that spill over into the awareness of global masses of people from art, literature, philosophy, morality, spiritual practices, religion, critical thought, and everyday living firmly establish the insight that things do not have to be the way they are today and have been in the past. There are reasons behind the way things are that can be modified, changed, and transformed. Our human situation is informed by real and objective possibilities that are gradually being actualized. It is this insight that animated the thinking of Fethullah Gülen that offers humanity the practical possibility of a new age. The success of global civilization of love, tolerance, dialogue and empathy lives at the very heart of our common human potential. It requires the founding of Hizmet like social and global movements to bring about transformation of global civic society and rebirth of a global civilization.

Our humanity has arrived at the limits of our rebellious adolescent condition of individual   and collective immaturity as well as the limits of our outdated and dysfunctional institutions – global capitalism and the system of sovereign nation-states, along with the racism, bigotry, ethnocentrism, and technocracy that intertwine with the global institutions. A major change in the way we live is certainly beginning to show itself. It is evident from the numerous signs of our times, not the least of which is the outdated principles by which we have been living. We have seen at length how these principles have been operating throughout our world for decades – in the massive exploitation of masses of people, in the on-going destruction of our global society and our planetary ecosystem, in unremitting violence and wars everywhere on the planet. [13-b] Longing for an economic system that is sensitive to our humanitarian values is against the law of the monopoly instrument.

The non-healing wounds caused by the disasters that resulted from the selfish approaches of the West,  prioritized materialism and greed, have  snubbed human and humanitarian values and accordingly have used imperialism to deliver civilization to the exploited lands for several centuries. Neither have the wounds caused from World War I nor World War II healed yet. And threats like racism, terrorism and Islamophobia, which have been led by some politicians, especially from Europe and the West, are on rise again. The search for a reconciliation of civilizations under the alternative umbrella away from divided United Nations and under the global social movements like Hizmet global society will not be futile. [13-c]

At this juncture, we need, and are most likely living in the midst of, a renaissance, a rebirth. Such major changes in human thought and attitudes have happened a few times in history, not the least of which was the Renaissance that gave birth to the modern world during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Just as new “modern” political and economic institutions emerged during the Renaissance to replace older feudal institutions so new political and economic institutions need to emerge in the twenty-first century. However, the stakes are much higher today than ever before because our actions henceforth will determine forever either the flourishing or destruction of human beings and our planetary ecology. [13-d]

The Prophet’s path and Hizmet global civic movement and practice offer alternative solutions to many and very difficult   problems of all of humanity that is in search of solutions. Because this path offers a balanced approach with regards to this world and hereafter, sobriety and the compassion that is the core of humanity. According to Muslim belief, human being is meant to be an esteemed being and vicegerent on earth. Anything, any regime or any system that strips humankind of its basic and universal values is not humanitarian. It may promise to bring peace, but it can’t bring peace. It may promise to provide justice, but it can’t provide justice. There was a communist system and there is a still capitalist system; one had collapsed easily in spite of all kinds of impositions, oppressions and even massacres. And the other that is radical capitalism is collapsing and falling apart in front of our very eyes, just like a rotten and old tree. [13-e]

There are many ideas being kicked around in the world for its betterment, but Hizmet- the social global movement is equipped with not only an idea or a thought but also a practice in place for over 4 decades and has already spread globally transforming global civic society and our largely failed world order .The general public worldwide is increasingly seeing, affirming and embracing the significance of Hizmet works on behalf of a global change. This change goes beyond the grasping of an abstract holism of wholes and parts discerned by the contemporary sciences to a new concreteness, a new immediacy and action in which we discover the living experience in which the mother earth is the place that touches us, the place where we make our dwelling, and our ecology.

The Cosmic Triad of Heavens, Earth, and Human Beings is  equiprimordial  (i.e., not being originated by the other) and each has its own integrity and duties to perform and to maintain balanced form of humanism , the phenomenon of nature, and the habitat. The Systems that handle man from only one aspect or dimension can’t resolve the problems of humans. A human is a whole, with its heart and mind. The Prophet’s path as Hizmet considers and practices this wholeness (tawhid) is just like the message the honorable Fethullah Gülen sent to the symposium: in Gaziantep Turkey, “The Prophet’s Way is the way in which all mental, logical, intellectual, rational, spiritual, natural and humanitarian needs of the human are considered and none of them are ignored.”

Today the burden is on the shoulders of the followers of the Prophet’s path….like Hizmet global movement. We know that each human being is the child of the era in which he or she lives. The mentality and universal humanitarian values of the era in which we are living should be taken into account. Today, individual liberty has become prominent once more, and oppressive governments are to be replaced by true democratic governments that give even more importance to individual rights and liberty. Today we are living in a world where nobody is unquestionable and where the supremacy of law has to be the main criteria. And the motto of this world is certainly sharing and caring. [13-f]

Democracy must no longer function superficially for people who end up accepting as “realistic” profoundly undemocratic structures and processes. To live from our rootedness in true faith on the Earth, in its beauty, its smells, the way it feels, the breath of fresh air, the immense sky with its multiplicity of ecstatic colors and moods, is to begin to discern our democratic equality in which we all inherit this magical planet at the same level. The Earth belongs to all of us, and we must create the common, sustainable political, social and economic structures that embody this equiprimordial fact. [13-g]

To achieve holistic freedom in our lives not only liberates us from hate, fear, compulsions, and idolatries, it links us with others in communities of positive freedom and hopeful vision. To live from the Equiprimordial and fundamental truth of our common joy living in touch with mother Earth invokes a great responsibility toward all other people and the nature. We experience the moral imperative to transform our planetary institutions from being divided to holism (tawhid), from violence to nonviolence, from competitive destructiveness to a holistic and globally constructive society. Such a society can only be founded if we unite under a common constitution and global laws. [13-h]

Errol E. Harris’ recent book certainly conveys this possibility: 21st Century Democratic Renaissance. [14] The title of the book also captures precisely what will save us from a complete disaster for human civilization. As we can see, the renaissance of the twenty-first century, according to Harris, must also  include democratic world governance: In the world today the only form of democracy that could aspire to the ideals of the traditional philosophical conception would have to be global democracy, one that will  legislate and  implement global measures to deal with global problems (as sovereign nation-states  have failed to do so) and could maintain the Rule of Law worldwide (which the exercise of sovereign rights by independent nations prevents). Also, the only effective democracy would eventually have to take the form of global Governance, and that can certainly be truly democratic only if it is through federalism that will assure the right of member states to autonomy with respect to their own internal affairs, while it consigns to the Federal administration control over issues, the interests that are common to all its peoples, and those that the several member states cannot regulate within their own jurisdiction. [15]

Both Islamic and the rest of the world — in short, all of humanity — needs a rebirth. We need a global civilization that is based on love, mercy, dialogue, tolerance, dealing with evil, respecting everybody’s position, justice and fairness. Humanity will rediscover its core in this global society. This is one in which money and interests are not everything. This is the movement of competing with each other in good civil works and avoiding evil. The Civilized human beings live under the rule of democratically legislated, enforceable laws. The success of this global civilization will mean bringing this simple fact of civilized living on planet Earth. There are no good or evil nations (as there may be some leaders of nations who may do evil things); there is simply a system of relatively autonomous nation-states that rejects solemnly the rule of law in the world. The horror we see all around us is by and large a direct consequence of this system, in tandem with an economic system that must, like a cancer, grow or die, and so necessarily eats up the biosphere of our planet in its quest for endless increase in private profit for the elites. Acting now can save our planet from self-destruction. It only really requires that we fully grasp the basic principle that civilized human beings live under the rule of democratically legislated, enforceable laws.

We have seen that all of this remains empty rhetoric unless embodied in concrete institutions and democratic procedures that effectively translate our human potential into democratic global law that applies equally to all. Without a concrete integration under a Constitution for the global Federation, the oppressors and exploiters will say “Oh yes, we very much agree with these ideals that we are all working toward the future.” The claim to hold ideals that we are working toward the future reflects an inauthentic and dishonest response to our human situation when those ideals could and should be effectively institutionalized sooner than later within a concrete world democracy.

The Renaissance of the Twenty-first Century, the triumph of global civilization, must necessarily include non-military, civilian democratic global Federation. The renaissance cannot be merely cultural. It cannot be an evolution in mere global “governance” as some economists and political leaders have urged. It must include genuine civil government, with the ability to enforce democratic laws over even the heads of nation-states and transnational corporations.  It must result in a concrete democratic constitution – with a founding document that can both enhance and lay the groundwork for continuing growth in global maturity and a peaceful, prosperous, and free human existence on the Earth. Everything is ready for us to take this next step toward a higher human civilization.

The next step must be a real, and a genuine transformation of our fundamental assumptions and premises. It cannot be the presence of change that attempts to deal with our global crises from the same outdated set of assumptions. We have seen the disastrous consequences of assumptions such as the divided system of sovereign nation-states, the economics of monopoly capitalism, a United Nations that is no longer “united,” the false notions of a “clash of civilizations,” and “End of History” or the naïve assumption of the irreconcilability   of the world’s belief systems. We must transcend to genuine unity in diversity institutionalized under a global Constitution, which is indeed the foundational stone for a holistic universal civil society of freedom, sustainability, and prosperity.

Global democracy and human maturity go hand in hand. We have understood that political and economic democracy must serve as both ends and means. Beyond a political system, democracy must live as a moral ideal for human relationships, demanding that economic and political liberty, equality, and civil society become the norm in human relationships, that we begin relating to one another as persons, not as things. Institutionalizing democracy will then constitutes the means to mature, sustainable living in peace on Earth as well as the ultimate goals to be sought through all our activities. Ends and means at last achieve balance and harmony. The end or goal of democratic liberty, equality, and community on Earth is also the means to that ideal.

All and sundry must think, act, and live in terms of the concept and ideal of global democracy is to become a catalyst for a rebirth for humanity that prepares a glorious future for our children and grandchildren. We should no longer be living from the divisive ego but from our inner common reality, actualizing our higher human potential for a peaceful and just world civil society. Only this transformative action can lead to the real success for a global civilization – uniting all peoples under the equal protection of democratically legislated laws. We foresee before us the very possibility of a new dawning for our humanity. This is our highest hope, our most beautiful dream, our most rational conclusion, and our most fundamental moral obligation.

The Prophet’s path being practiced and demonstrated by Hizmet global movement is certainly one of the best ways to minimize and eliminate ignorance through worldwide education, to narrowing the gap between the rich and poor again through education and charitable works. The wealth of the earth will have to be eventually shared most fairly and all discriminations based on race, color, language and ways of living will end through the works and ongoing efforts of Hizmet like movements. Disunity among nation-states and peoples will eventually end through human communicative competence, optimism, dialogue based on tolerance, love, intellectual capacity and self-confidence to bring about mutual understanding and peace on earth. This too is being done by Hizmet through interfaith and multicultural dialogues around the globe. All this isn’t merely a dream or a thought since action has been ongoing and continues. As beautifully stated by Huseyin Gulerce, “today the followers of the Prophet Muhammad’s path are giving this definite hope to the masses of people around the globe and universal peace choirs are certainly making a hit with humanitarian compositions. The Prophet’s path is the harbinger of new springs world-wide.” [16]

* Muzaffar K. Awan, MD, is a Pakistani-American physician who has lived in the USA for over 40 years. He practices medicine in Allen Park, Detroit Metropolitan area of Michigan. He has a keen interest in the enlightenment thought and practice in Islam, East-West intellectual exchanges and  interfaith dialogues. He is an amateur writer and has written numerous articles in Pakistan newspapers and magazines.

* Published on The Muslim Times, 26 July 2012, Thursday

Refrences & notes:

[1] A tremendous contribution highly respected by me and many others and I have with due appreciation utilized many important ideas and principles from it throughout these pages of my writing:  Glen T. Martin; Triumph of Civilization: Democracy, Nonviolence,

and the Piloting of Spaceship Earth: The Twenty-first Century Triumph

of Civilization: Planetary Maturity, Nonviolent Institutions, and a Holistic Earth Community.  Institute for Economic Democracy Press, Sun City, AZ, (Chapter 10 – Conclusion; 2009:1-16)

[2] Go to!/hizmetmovement, [Last access, June 22, 2012].

[3] About politics, Gulen advises Hizmet movement to remain non-partisan and apolitical.  Unlike some other Islamic groups, Gulen argues that there is no such as thing as a puritan Islamic State, and that therefore There can be no ultimate goal to work for its fulfillment. Instead, Gulen argues that states and Governments should follow certain fundamental principles as espoused by Islam, see Ozcan Keels, “Promoting Human Rights Values in the Muslim World: the Case of the Gülen Movement”, Gulen Conference, House of Lords, SOAS, LSE, October 2007, at,%20O.pdf, [Last access, June 22, 2012].

[4] An analysis of M. Fethullah Gulen and his understanding of tolerance: Jane B. Schlubach, “Tolerance Is Love: Gülen, Ghazali, and Rumi”, Rumi Forum, November 12, 2005, at [Last access, June 22, 2012].

[5] About interfaith dialogue and peace-building: Fr. Thomas Michel, “The Contribution of Interfaith Dialogue to Peace Building”, at

[6] An Official Fethullah Gulen Website, “Introducing Fethullah Gülen”, at, June 22, 2012.

[7] An overview of the movement, see Yuksel A. Aslandogan, “The Gulen Movement”, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, June 17, 2009, at, [Last access, June 22, 2012].

[8] Ihsan Yilmaz, “Hizmet, forming a party and capturing the state”, Today’s Zaman, February 15, 2012, at, [Last access, June 22, 2012].

[9] Turkish Language Olympiads, Wikipedia, at, [Last access, 22, 2012].

[10] Bill Park, “The Fethullah Gulen Movement”, the Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol.12, No.3, September, 2008, at

[11] A contribution that is highly respected by different groups too: main 2menu-29/898-texas-senate-honors-mr-fethullah-gulen-and-the-gulen-movement, June 22, 2012.

[12] Darian C. De Bolt; dialogue (Greek foundations and the thought of fethullah,
Jul 14, 2008: 1

[13-a]  A tremendous contribution highly respected by me and many others and I have with due respect utilized many important ideas and principles from it throughout these pages of my writing:  Glen T. Martin; Triumph of Civilization: Democracy, Nonviolence, and the Piloting of Spaceship Earth: The Twenty-first Century Triumph

of Civilization: Planetary Maturity, Nonviolent Institutions, and a Holistic Earth Community.  Institute for Economic Democracy Press, Sun City, AZ, (Chapter 10 – Conclusion; 2009:8-9)

[13-b] Glen T. Martin; Triumph of Civilization: Democracy, Nonviolence, and the Piloting of Spaceship Earth: The Twenty-first Century Triumph of Civilization: Planetary Maturity, Nonviolent Institutions, and a Holistic Earth Community.  Institute for Economic Democracy Press, Sun City, AZ, (Chapter 10 – Conclusion; 2009:2)

[13-c] HÜSEYİN GÜLERCE, “Good news from Prophet’s Way.”   Today’s Zaman, Tuesday May 08, 2012.

[13-d] Glen T. Martin; Triumph of Civilization: Democracy, Nonviolence, and the Piloting of Spaceship Earth: The Twenty-first Century Triumph of Civilization: Planetary Maturity, Nonviolent Institutions, and a Holistic Earth Community.  Institute for Economic Democracy Press, Sun City, AZ, (Chapter 10 – Conclusion; 2009:2)

[13-e] HÜSEYİN GÜLERCE, “Good news from Prophet’s Way.”   Today’s Zaman, Tuesday May 08, 2012.

[13-f]  Ibid

[13-g] Glen T. Martin; Triumph of Civilization: Democracy, Nonviolence, and the Piloting of Spaceship Earth: The Twenty-first Century Triumph of Civilization: Planetary Maturity, Nonviolent Institutions, and a Holistic Earth Community.  Institute for Economic Democracy Press, Sun City, AZ, (Chapter 10 – Conclusion; 2009:3)

[13-h]  Ibid

[14] Harris, E.E; Twenty-first Century Democratic Renaissance: From Plato to Neoliberalism to Planarity Democracy. The Institute for Economic Democracy Press, 2008

[15] Harris, E.E; Twenty-first Century Democratic Renaissance: From Plato to Neoliberalism to Planetary Democracy. The Institute for Economic Democracy Press, (2008:135)

[16] HÜSEYİN GÜLERCE, “Good news from Prophet’s Way.”   Today’s Zaman, Tuesday May 08, 2012.

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